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Full text of "Knight"

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Knights 



Water 



Wheels 









CALIFORNIA 

STATE LIBRARY 



Call No. 



cTJ 




r CATALOG! :K 



WATER WHEELS 



HYDR^pKJT APPLIANCES 

MANUFACTURED \\\ 

KNIGHT & CO. 

1886 

;reek. 



Sutter. Creek, Amador county, Cal.," U. S. A. 



A — c7 



CO 



EDWARD A. RIX & CO, 



Sole Agents, 



18 and 20 Fremont street, 
san francisco, cal. 



October 1, 1886. 







CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY 



Till: KNIGHT WATER WHEEL. 



Ik. KNIGHT, in Common with others, made water wheels entirely out of wood, the 
buckets were shajKil like Saw Teeth, and wooden flanges covered the .sides of the buckets to confine the water; 
a round nonle wan used and the general result* were considered at that time highly satisfactory. 

The next step al lat« was to make a wooden wheel with iron buckets, giving them a curve 

and di>chargmg the water inward the centre of the wheel, still using, however, the round nozzle. 

Tw.. yoara later than this a man named COLBMAN patented a wheel which had a bucket shaped very 
much like the present PblTON Bucket, the stream splitting and curving off to each side. He, for lack of means, 
we understand, did nothing with it. 

After two or three years more had passed, Mr. Knight made an improvement by using a curved iron 
bucket and having the discharge toward the centre and to one side, much the same as the present Collins' 
wheel, trill usiuj; the round nozzle. 

After continued experiments with the round nuzzle he found it did not fill the general requirements; be 
could not cover enough bucket space along the periphery of the wheel, without covering an equal space in the 
width of the bucket, by increasing the diameter of the round nozzle. 

This induced him to try an lillipricnl or Oblong nozzle, and the first wheel of this character was placed in 
the Lamphcar mine, at Mokelumne Hill, and it was quickly followed by two others, so satisfactorily did they 
work. (^ 

Prom these wheels snranjplhe present Knight Water Wheel, for here it was he conceived the idea of 
abandoning entirely any diraThiodirication of the round nozzle, and made the opening a narrow rectangular slit. 

The round nozzle did well enough where small quantities of water were used, but upon using considerable 
water the nozzle became so large that while the upper edge could be brought near the wheel the lower edge was 
far away, and it reduced the power materially, so the slit was determined upon. More than one nozzle was also 
tried but it did not prove satisfactory. 

In 1875 the first wheel of the present style was placed in the Lincoln mine, at Sutter Creek, and from 
that time various improvements have been made in the size and arrangement of the slits in the nozzle and shape 
of the buckets, until at the present time Mr. Knight is manufacturing a wheel that for general utility and 
economy, challenges competition. ± \ /\ /\ J 

The slit forrr/oj Opening in the nozzle presents a number of vital points, 

1st. It allows the-nozzle to be made to the curve of the wheel, and thus each part of the opening can be 
brought to within a bare^clearance distance of the buckets; all portions of the^waier thus enter the buckets 
with the same force. \ ^ 

2d. If it is desired to increase or diminish the power of the wheel it is pot necessary to open or close the 
gate and thereby throttle the pttyer out of the water, by diminishing its presshfe; but it is merely necessary to 
lengthen or shorten the slit by mearts. v of a steel slide as shown in the engraving, and also on page 19. 

The shape of the nozzle thus remains the same and the pressure is neither increased nor diminished, but 
remains constant. fj /""N r"^ C^" l* 

3d. No matter whether the slit be lengthened or shortened the amount of water striking a running inch of 
bucket is a constant quantity and thus the curves on the bucket can be constant and the head remaining the same. 
The same conditions will exist when 50 H. P. is given out as for 10, and thus the economy of the wheel is 
unaltered. 

This can never be the case with a round nozzle, for if the curves on the buckets are made for a 2-inch 
nozzle and a 3-inch nozzle to put on, the relation between the curves on the bucket and the nozzle is destroyed 
and the economy altered. 

4th. The slit affords an easy opportunity of operating a governor as explained on page 23. 

Many have objected to the slit nozzle because it seems the natural thing from long association with pipes 
and hose nozzles, that water should come out of a round opening, but upon investigation and actual experiment 
they will find the rectangular slit to be the most economical for general purposes. 

There are over 300 Knight Wheels in operation in California and many have gone to various parts of 
the world and all are giving satisfaction. 

Numerous attempts have been made by other wheel manufacturers to displace the Knight Water Wheel 
with their own, but in all instances where the personal feeling of friendship or money consideration did not enter 
into the question, they have failed and of their successes we know of but two or three. 

The matter of the so-called Grass Valley test we have reserved for special treatment in another part of our 
catalogue. 

All parties desiring a first-class water wheel, one which we will guarantee in all respects, would do well 
for themselves by communicating with us, before purchasing. We are always ready and pleased to furnish all 
information gratis and the estimates and calculations mad> by our engineers, we are always ready to back up. 
We contract to deliver water power machinery in running order, as well as F. O. B. cars at lone, Amador 
County, Cal. 



220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



Knight's 6-foot Water Wheel. 




Scale 'A inch = J Foot 



The above wheel is 6 feet in diameier and used in connection with a No. 4 gale and nozzle 
and intended for use under heads varying from 50 feet to 700 feet. It is shown with Hydraulic 
■•Governor attached. It will develop the following power: 

50 H. P. working under a head of 50 feet. 125 H. P. working under a head of 150 feet. 

75 H. P. working under a head of 75 feet. 175 PI. P. working under a head ol 225 feet. 

250 H. P. working under a head of 300 feet. 

We have larger gates and nozzles for the same water wheel that will increase the power to 
500 H. P. 

In this case a larger shaft and stronger frame work is required. 
The weight is about 4000 lbs., depending on size of pulley required. 



83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, 



fc 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 



Knight's 6-foot Water Wheel. 



METHOD OF SETTING. 




The above wheel is 6 feet in diameter and is used in conjunction with the No. 4 gate and 
nozzle and is intended for heads from 60 feet to 600 feet. The cut is made to show the way a 
water wheel should be boxed or cased and placed in position. 



RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



By giving attention to the following directions any one will be able to erect the wheel 
properly: 

Frame all the timbers as shown in the cuts, following the sizes as marked, and bolt them 
together firmly. 

Set the frame work on level ground and tamp in the din firmly about the mud sills. It 
is immaterial at what angle the water pipe leads to the wheel, it will work equally well on the 
op, bottom or any intermediate position, but as the lowest position gives the most power, the 
nozzle is generally ulaced on -the bottom. At all events it is only necessary that the curve of the 
nozzle shall be concentric with the wheel, and ^ of an inch away from it, and the slit should be 
midway of the width of the buckets. The nozzle once in place should be bolted firmly to prevent 
it getting against the wheel. Plank the bottom of the [ail race and board up the wheel from the 
boxes down on the outside of the timbers; this allows free space for the water to leave the buckets 
and gives more room to work in, should it be necessary to change the nozzle. 

Put a trap door on the side, opposite the nozzle, so a man can get in and take it off if 
necessary. s^ 

Cover over the wheel from the boxes up on the inside of the timber so as to leave the 
boxes in sight for oiling and adjustment. Make this cover loose so it^Tan be taken off should it 
become necessary to raise the wheel or otherwise work at it. \L^ 

After the water is turned on the speed is adjusted by moving in or out the steel slide in 
the nozzle until the exact number of revolutions is obtained; while doing this the gate should be 
wide open. 

In closing the water gate be sure and shut it completely off, otherwise the water will wear 
away the seat so that it will always leak. A screen should be placed above the sand box in the 
flume, else the nozzle is liable to become clogged with leaves and sticks and delays occur. 



83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 



KNIGHT'S 6-FOOT WATER WHEEL. 




:ter and is used i 



The above wheel is 6 feet in diameter and is used in connection with the No. 3 gate and 
nozzle and is intended for use under heads from 50 feel to 300 feet. 

This water wheel is commonly used for driving 40 and 60 stamp mills under a head of 200 
feet and upwards. 

This wheel will develop the following power: 



25 H. P. working under a head of 50 feet. 75 H. P. working under a head of 100 feet. 

50 H. P. working under a head of 75 feet. 150 H. P. working under a head of 200 feet. 

200 H . P. working under a head of 300 feet. 

The weight of this wheel complete is about 3200 lbs. , depending on how large a pulley is re- 
quired. We furnish pulleys of any reasonable size that the speed may require. The same is true 
of all the other wheels. 



RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



(;| 



KNIGHT'S 6-FOOT WATER WHEEL. 




>"?S";^ 



The above wheel is 6 feel in diameter and is used in conneclion with the No. 2 gate and 
nozzle and is Intended for heads from 100 to 500 feet and requires but a small amount of water. 
This wheel will develop the following power. 

35 H. P. under a head of 100 feet. 100 H. P. under a head of 300 feet. 

75 H. P. under a head of 200 feet. 150 H. P. under a head of 400 feet. 

175 H. P. under a head of 500 feet. 

Weight about 2400 lbs., depending on amount of power and size of pulley required. 



83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 



Knight's 42-foot Water Wheel. 




k'.viG/irs Standahd 
■/'.- Feet Wheel. 



f r 



if i" JL ! 



cre 



The above is the Knight 41-foot wheel used in connection with the No. 5 gate and 
nozzle, and intended for heads from 10 to 75 feet. It is well adapted to quartz mills, for the 
speed is such that you can belt direct from the water wheel pulley to the cam shaft, thus avoiding 
the counter-shaft, which is an item in economical construction and operation. 

This wheel will develop the following power: 



15 H. P. under a head of 10 feet. 
35 H. P. undei a head of 25 feel. 



70 H. P. under a head of 50 feet. 
100 H. P. under a head of 75 feet. 



For this wheel add $35.00 to the regular price list of wheels the same diameter and power 
Weight 2500 to 3500, according to power required. 



RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



10 



220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



(II 



KNIGHTS 4=-F00T WATER WHEEL. 




The above wheel is e,\ feet in diameter and is used in connection with the No. 3 gate 
and nozzle and is intended for heads of from 50 to 300 feet. 

This is the common size used for driving Hoisting Works, Quartz Mills, Air Compressors 
and Saw Mills. For Saw Mill use the Patent Hydraulic gate and nozzle is used, which saves the 
water between cuts and for which an extra price is charged as per list on page 26. 

This wheel will develop the following power: 

25 H. P. under a head of 50 feet. 75 H. P. under a head of 100 feet. 

50 H. P. under a head of 75 feet. 150 H. P. under a head of 200 feet. 

200 H. P. under a head of 300 feet. 

Weight 1800 to 2400 lbs., according to horse power required. 



83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, 



) 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 



11 



KNIGHT'S 45-FOOT WATER WHEEL. 




The above wheel is 4 J feet in diameter and is used in connection with the No. 2 gate and 
nozzle, and is intended for heads of water from too feet to 500 feet. 
This wheel will develop the following power: 

35 H. P. under a head of 100 feet. 100 H. P. under a head of 300 feet. 

75 H. P. under a head of 200 feet. 150 H . P. under a head of 400 feet. 

175 H. P. under a head of 500 feet. 

Weight from 1400 to 2200 lbs., depending on the power required. 



RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



12 220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



KNIGHTS 3-FOOT WATER WHEEL. 



t 3 2*«' , i— } 




The above wheel is 3 feet in diameter and is used in connection with the No. 5 gate and 
nozzle and is intended for heads of water from 10 to 75 feet 
This wheel will develop the following power: 



15 H. P. under a head of 10 feet. 
35 H. P. under a head of 25 feet. 



70 H. P. under a head of 50 feet. 
100 M. P. under a hea*l of 75 feet. 



For this wheel add $35.00 to the regular price list of wheels the same diameter and 



capacity. 



Weight 2000 to 3000 lbs., accotding to power required. 



83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 



18 



KNIGHT'S 3-FOOT WATER WHEEL 




f% E ^' 

feet in diameter and is used in connection w 



The above wheel is 3 feet in diameter and is used in connection with the No. 4 gate and 
nozzle and is intended for heads of water from 25 to 100 feet. 

The heaviest piece is the water wheel, which weighs 350 lbs., and can be packed on a good 
mule. 

This wheel will develop the following power: 



15 H. P. under a head of 25 feet. 
50 H. P. under a head of 40 feet. 



75 H. P. under a head of 60 feet. 
130 H. P. under a head of 100 feet. 



For this wheel add $20.00 to the regular price list of same size and power. 
Weight 1500 to 2000 lbs., according to H. P. required. 



RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



14 



220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



Q 



Knight's 3-foot Water Wheel. 




I m^s 




lav- >— v 

KNIGHT'S 

3 FOOT 

Water Wheel. 



3§£ : 



co ^J 

The above wheel is 3 feet in diameter and is used in conjunction with the No. 2 gate 
and nozzle, and is intended for heads of water from 50 feet to 300 feet and over. It is a very 
light wheel and easily transported over the roughest mountain trails. The wheel itself boxed 
weighs about 300 pounds and is the heaviest piece. 

This wheel is very desirable for use in saw mills where a high speed is required, saving 
the expense and trouble of gearing and counlershafts. Where the head is high enougii, they can 
be put on the saw shaft directly, and be operated by one of Knight's Patent Hydraulic Gates, by 
means of which the water can be closed off as the saw is going out of cut, and all the water saved 
between cuts, thus running ihe mill on about one half the water. 

Extra charge will be made for the Hydraulic Gale attachment, for which see price list on 
page 21. 

This wheel will develop the following power: 

15 H. P. under a head of 50 feel. 35 H. P. under a head of 100 feet. 

25 H. P. under a head of 75 feet. 75 H. P. under a head of 200 feet. 

100 H. P. under a head of 300 feet. 

Weight 1000 to 1 500 pounds according to H. P. required. 



83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, 



) 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. ' 



Knight's Reversible Water Wheels. 




-.137--*" 

Patented Nov. 7, 1882. 



The above represents the Knight 6-foot Reversible Water Wheels used in connection with 
the No. 4 gate and nozzle, under heads from 125 to 250 feet and will develop from 100 to 200 
Horse Power under the above heads. This is planned especially to take the place of engines, 
working at mines, where owners wish to make the change in the least expensive way possible, in 
order to utilize water power instead of steam. 



RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



16 220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



We advocate the transmission of power to the reel shaft by manilla ropes or cotton made 
expressly for the purpose. The nozzles are so arranged that the engineer can increase or diminish 
the speed of the cage or bucket as he chooses, while the hoisting is in progress. This is effected 
by means of a Hydraulic Cylinder attached to the nozzle, the piston rod being a continuation of 
he steel slide covering the slit. B. B. B. are two valve stems leading to the engineer's 
platform; these operate the valves in the water chests bolted to the frame work as shown and which 
are fed by water from the main supply pipe through the pipe F. 

The four pipes S. S. S. S. lead from the water chest to the cylinder on the nozzles, and are 
the feed and exhaust pipes that supply and take away the water from that cylinder, thus controlling 
the motion of the piston which in turn moves the slide back and forth. The increasing or dimin- 
ishing thus of the size of nozzle admits more or less water and consequently increases or diminishes 
the speed to suit the kind of hoisting that may be desired at the time. 

When the cage arrives at the top of the shaft the engineer moves the rod A. A. ; this is con- 
nected to the rock shaft that moves the valve stem on the main hydraulic gates. This closes off 
the water completely. This cylinder is supplied with water by the pipe P. P. connected to the main 
supply pipe. By all of these patented contrivances, this application of water power is made fully 
equal in desirability to any steam engine. 

Price of reversible water wheel complete $1100. If the pressure is very high the cost 
would be less. 

The above price does not include frame work. If desired we furnish frame work and set 
everything in position for $175.00 extra. 



83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS. 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 



Knight's 3-foot Vertical Turbine. 



\*v 




nr 



^ , ' ,' ,' ,' t -U-L T -L r -L^l 



The above is Knight's 3-foot Vertical Turbine which is intended to develop a large power 
under heads of from 10 feet to 56 feet. In the vertical elevation in the above cut, the framework 
is cut away and also a portion of the sheet iron piping, in order to show the guide curves for con- 
ducting the water on to ihe buckets, and also to show the adjustable circular nozzle for regulating 
the power or speed, and which is operated by the hand lever shown. 



RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



18 



220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



It is often necessary to set the water wheel horizontal to accommodate certain classes of 
machinery, such as Flouring Mills and Vertical Centrifugal Pumps. When using these water 
wheels horizontally, there is no gearing or step under the water wheel shaft, the entire weight 
resting on two 26-inch friction wheels, and a steel tappet keyed to the water wheel shaft. A greater 
fall of water can be utilized by running the wheel horizontally. 



We make the following sizes of the Vertical Turbine: 



c 



_ 



INCHES. 


H. P. 

10' 


H. P. 


H. P. 

20' 


H. P. 

25' 


H. P. 

30' 


PRICE. 


WEIGHT. 


8 


2 


3.5 


5 


7 


8 


$ 245 


800 


10 
12 
15 


2-5 

3 

5 

25 


5 
6.5 

7-5 


;8 


8.5 

86 

12 


10 
12 
15 


275 
300 
325 


900 
1000 
1 100 


36 


35 


45 


60 


70 


500 


2500 to 
4000 



o 



Speed will be same as shown On Table, page 27. 

The foregoing wheel can be made very light \v,hen required to save high rates of freight or 
for mule packing, for which an extra charge of 10 per cent, will be made. 

These wheels can be made without the adjustable nozzle, if desired to save expense. 
Parties erecting them can plug the guide curves with wood to decrease the power. This will make 
a reduction of $20 on all wheels except the 3 foot which will be $25. 



83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, 



) 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 



in 



KNIGHT'S BRASS WHEELS. 



\ 



G — — O 

We manufacture small brass wheels with light copper buckets, for heads of water varying 
from 50 feet to 700 feet and that range in power from J H. P. to 10 H. P. These wheels are 
used around mines extensively, for running blowers in blacksmith shops and for ventilating mines. 
For running circular saws they are unequaled. On account of small diameter they develop a 
high speed and counter-shafts are avoided. 

O C>C^l 

In choosing a wheel from the following list, take the one best adapted to your speed 
required, as the power ranges about the same. For calculating speed refer to the Speed Table on 
page 27, and by sifn'ple proportion determine the number of revolutions from that of some of the 
wheels there given. \ -. ^> 

"$% inch Water Wheel, shrift boxes, gate and nozzle $30.00. 

-£^ % 35 - 00 - 

V" 4S-oo- 

65.00. 



H 

16 



;:/? 



CRE5 



. 75.00. 
. 85.00. 
. 100.00. 
.110.00. 



RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



20 



220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 







Knight's Patent Hydraulic Gate. 




The above is the cut of Knight's Patent Hydraulic Gate, attached to a : nozzle and operated 
by an ordinary hand IevetXN 

The gate is opened and closed by means of water pressure applied to the hydraulic 
cylinder which is attached to the gate stem. By this means a child can open or close with ease 
a 22-inch gate under a pressure of 500 feet, that would require two men to work hard to open, 
in from three to four minutes. 

By placing in the cylinder special exhaust ports, the piston is made to close or open the 
gate at once or slowly. 

Any one at a glance can see of what vital importance this contrivance is to water power 
machinery. No hoisting works can be properly constructed without it, and a great saving can be 
effected, where a company has a dam or reservoir, by using this gate. 



83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 



■>\ 



Take the case of a waler wheel used in running a saw mill, where the power is used less 
than one-half the time Wiihout this contrivance it would be necessary to run the water all the time on 
account of the great inconvenience in closing and opening the gale, but with this attachment as 
soon as the cut is through the water can be closed off, and if there is a reservoir it accumulates, 
and the mill can be run on about one-half the quantity ii otherwise would take. 

The Idaho Mining Compam Valley, who are using the Pelion wheel, purchased 

our Patent Hydraulic Cylinder and all their attachments for operating these wheels attached to 
their hoisting works. s ^""* \-S 

Cut on page i 5 shows two of these gates operating reversible wheels for hoisting. 



Persons are hereby cautioned against using a Hydraulic Cylinder in any 
shape or form for closing a water wheel gate, as this is covered by our letters 
Patent, and we shall enjoin parties from using the same, and subject them to 
payment of damages. 



IOOU 



Following is our price tor the different sizes of plain gates and also Hvdraulic gates. 

^ XT 

— -f- 



Opening of Val 
Inches. 



Diameter of 
Numlierof Openings. ] Hydraulic Cylinder. 
Inches. 



Price of Gate Nozzle 
and Handwheel. 




Price of 
Hydraulic Gate. 



$140 

180 
210 
250 
315 



Hydraulic Gate includes rock shaft, boxes and levers. 



RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



22 220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



Knight's Hydraulic Hoisting Works. 



One of the principal uses to which water wheels are now put, is that of driving hoisting 
reels for mining purposes 1 . Not only is it far more economical, but it gives a steady, reliable motion, 
and is much easier to operate than steam hoists. 

All of our hoisting works are operated by Knight's Patent Hydraulic Gate, by means of 
which the engineer can, with the smallest movement of his lever, control the action of the water, 
stopping the cage instantly if necessary. 

It is generally intended in most hoisting works to lower the cage vvith the brake, but in 
some mines we have placed an additional wheel reversed on the shaft for lowering with power. 
This is also fitted up with the Hydraulic Gate and is independent from the other wheel, and can be 
used or not as may be desired. Special mention is made of the reversible wheels on page 15. 

We build any sizes that may be required of these hoisting works. 

Our regular pattern list includes (our sizes, orders for which we are ready to fill at the 
shortest notice. 

All of our work we guarantee and deliver in running order if required. 

We furnish our hoisting works with either single or double reels as may be required, 
prices for which we quote as follows: 



NO. 


Diameter of 
Winding 
Drum. 

Feet. 


Diameter of 

Friction 

Wheel. 

Feet. 


Diameter of 
Sheaves. 

Inches. 


Diame er of 
Water Wheel. 

Feet. 


WEIGHT. 
Lbs. 


Price of x] Price of 

Single Drum Double Drum 

Machine. Machine. 


Additional 

Price for 

Reversible 

Wheel. 


1 


3 


3ff 


30 


3 


5000 


$ 650 


$ 850 


$ 200 


2 


4.4 


5.0 ' 


4* 
48 


d-R 

4 .1.1 


10000 
12000 


1100 


1400 


300 


3 


5.6 


6.0 


1200 


1500 


500 


4 


7.6 


8.6 


60 


6.0 


24000 


2000 


2500 


800 


The following parties are using our 


Hoisting Works or our 


Patented Appliances: 


Pacific Mine, - 


_ 


Placerville, Cal. 


El Dorado Water and D. G. Co. 


_ 


Placerville, Cal. 


Butte Basin Mining Co. 


- 


Jackson, Cal. 


Patterson Mining Company, - 


- 


- Tuttletown, Cal. 


Lincoln Mining Company, 


- 


Sutter Creek Cal. 


Sierra Buttes Company, 


- 


Sierra City, Cal. 


Idaho Mining Company, 


- 


Grass Valley, Cal. 


Kennedy Mining Company, - 


~ - 


Jackson, Cal. 



83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 



Knight's Hydraulic Governor. 



Hvdraulic < 



We manufacture and can attach to all water wheels our Hvdraulic Governor for regulating 
the speed of the wheel to suit different requirements. One can bei^eepn on page 4 of this cata- 
logue, attached to a six-foot wheel. On the nozzle there is an Hydraulic Cylinder which moves 
back and forth the steel slide in the slit of the nozzle, thus increasing and diminishing the flow 
of water and consequently the power and speed. 

This cylinder is supplied with water by small pipes running from the Hydraulic valve 
chest under the Governor, the valve in this being operated by the raising or lowering of the Gov- 
ernor balls, which in turn is moved by a bell from the water wheel shaft, all as shown in the 
engraving. This is the only method by which water wheels can be regulated and yet retain the 
same percentage of power. It cannot be done on a round nozzle. 

The Governor shown is used for clear water. When muddy water only is available, we 
make another kind of Governor that works the slide in the nozzle by means of gearing. Parties 
ordering Governors should state what kind of water is used, so we may know which kind to send. 
Also what is the extreme variation in speed that may be allowed and what extreme variation of 
power is likely to occur. The price is $175.00 boxed 



RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



24 220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



Knight's Improved Safety Valve. 

(FOR WATER ONLY.) 

V^ O 



We manufacture an improved safety valve for relieving the shock on the water pipe when 
the water is closed off suddenly. By using our safety valve the iron used in making the pipe can 
be made lighter than without it, saving many times the cost of the contrivance in a long line of 
pipe. 

Under a head of 200 feet by actual experiment, the water can be closed off suddenly and 
the gauge registered a pressure of but 8 lbs. increased pressure, whereas, under ordinary circum- 
stances, it would have raised from 30 to 40 lbs. 

Where such a small item of expense is incurred by putting on these safely valves, no 
owner should run the risk of straining and perhaps bursting his pipes. The price is $175.00, 
boxed, weight 400 lbs. 



83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 



NOTICE TO PURCHASERS. 



In ordering give inform uiou mentioned below. Give address or Bhipping mark in full, 
so no mistakes will he made, Prices in this catalogue will be a is closely as possible; 

wj reserve the right, however, to change prices without notice. 

As we use every precaution in packing and shipping our machinery no allowance can be 
m i le if goods are damaged either in direct shipments or enclosure through other houses. 

Boxing if required will be charged at cost. 

All Ljoods are delivered at Freight Depot. lone, Amador Co., Cal., free. 

Remittance can be male either by innk-draft, payable to our order, or cash sent by any of 
the Express Companies, or by P. O. Mo««y order. Ipcash is sent by mail the letter should be 



registered. 



Remittances are in all cases at the risk of sender. V. _. 

For goods ordered by express and bill to be collected on delivery, a small remittance 
should accompany order. 

Express charges for collection will be added to amount of bill. 

Regular customers are allowed 30 days' time on payments. 

Purchasers who find anything wrong with any of our manufactures are requested to notify 
us at once and if we have made any erior we will rectify same at our expense. 

Correspondence is solicited from all parties thinking of using water power, and estimates 
and information will be furnished free of cost. 

Information Correspondents should give, in writing for Water Wheels. 

ira ditch or watc 



Head of water, measured fromtHtch 1 ol water source to point of application, in vertical 



feet. 



2. Amount of water per minute in inches, cubic feet, or gallons. 

3. Power expected to be realized; if unknown, describe the machinery to be run. 

4. Distance of ditch or water source from water wheel, measured along the ground, for 
length of pipe. 

5. If for pumping purposes, how much water is to be pumped and how high. 

6. If you have counter-shafts, or other shafts to belt to, give speeds of same. 

7. State whether you want Reversible Wheels, Hydraulic Gates, Governors, or Safety 
Valves in connection with your work. 

8. State whether water is clear or muddy. 



RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



26 



220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



f 



PRICE LIST - 

OK 

KNIGHTS WATER WHEELS. 





2 


5 


10 


'20 


30 


40 


60 


80 


100 


200 


300 


400 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H.P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


FEET. 


















' 








1.6 


$82 


$125 


$130 


$150 


















2.6 




150 


160 
165 


170 
175 
200 


$180 
185_ 

220 
















3 


$195 

,„ 


$220 
275 


$250 
300 


$300 
350 


$350 
400 






4.6 


$450 


$500 


6 










275 


300 
400 


330 
420 


385 
450 


400 

500 


450 

550 


500 
600 


550 


8 










650 













id a p 



The above prices include the wheel boxes, shaft, gate nozzle and a pulley to suit the speed 
required; provided, however, that it shall not exceed two-thirds the diameter of the wheel. If 
larger than this is wanted, an extra price will be charged. ^, 

Above prices are delivered at R. R. station at lone, Cal. 

For price on Turbine Wheel see page 18. 

For price on Brass Wheels see page 19. 



83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 



87 



Table Showing Diameter. Working Revolutions and Head 



KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS. 



10 
15 

211 

30 

41) 

50 

60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

110 

120 

130 

HO 

150 

160 

170 

180 

190 

200 

210 

2211 

230 



DIAMETER OK WHEEI S IN I 1.1 1 



IV, 



WORKING RE 



160 
186 

210 

258 
-IS 
333 
365 
391 
421 
447 
472 
494 
516 
537 
556 
577 
597 
614 
632 
649 
665 
682 
699 
714 



\'OLl- 1 IONS 



_^J± 



; pi 



96 

111 

126 

154 

178 

188 

219 
236 
252 

•jii.s 
883 
|86 

309 
322 
333 
346 
358 
36 s 
379 
389 
399 
4H9 
419 
428 



98 
105 
188 

149 
166 
182 
197 
210 
223 
236 

258 
26s 

288 
293 
307 
316 
324 
332 
341 
349 
357 



SO 



83 
68 

70 
86 

99 
111 

121 
131 
!40 
149 
157 
164 
175 
179 
185 
192 
132 
204 
210 
216 
221 
227 
233 
238 



40 

46 

52 

64 

74 

83 

91 

98 

105 

111 

118 

123 

129 

134 

139 

144 

149 

153 

158 

162 

166 

1711 

174 

178 



30 

34 

39 

48 

56 

62 

68 

— J3 

7:i 

83 

S8 

92 

96 

100 

104 

108 

112 

115 

118 

121 

124 

127 

130 

133 



1 - 



240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
290 
300 
320 
340 
360 
380 
408 
420 
440 
460 
480 
500 
520 
540 
560 
580 
600 
620 



DIAMETER OK WHEELS IN FEET. 



iy. 



VA 



W, 



IRKING 



REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE. 



730 

745 

760 J. 

774 

788 

802 

816 

833 

868 

893 

918 

942 

965 

988 
1011 
1032 
1054 
1074 
1094 
1115 
1134 
J 154 
1175 



138 



438 
447 
456 
464 

472 
481 

-1S9 
499 

5211 
535 
5511 
565 

579 



606 
619 
63-2 
644 
656 
(169 
680 
692 
705 



365 
372 
380 
387 
394 
401 
408 
416 
434 
446 
■15!) 
471 
487 



592 494 



505 
516 
527 
537 
547 
557 
567 
577 
587 



213 


182 


248 


186 


253 


190 


258 


193 


262 


197 


267 


200 


272 


204 


277 


208 


289 


217 


297 


223 


306 


229 


314 


235 


321 


243 


329 


247 


337 


252 


344 


258 


351 


263 


358 


268 


364 


273 


372 


278 


378 


283 


384 


288 


391 


293 



136 
138 

142 
145 
148 
150 
153 
156 
162 
167 
171 
176 
182 
185 
189 
193 
197 
201 
204 
208 
212 
216 
220 



The above table gives ihe slowest speed for the Knight Wheel that will give high percent- 
age. Three to four per cent, may be added to suit pulleys and speed of line shafting without 
making material difference. In saw mill machinery it would be well to speed the wheel from 
fifteen to twenty per cent, in excess of above tables. 

This, although not giving so high a percentage of power from the water used, will be 
found beneficial, because the saw, in going out of cut, will not increase so rapidly in speed, and 
the governor will have more opportunity to act. 



RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



28 



220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



TABLE OF HORSE POWERS 



KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS. 

Calculated for I inch=i.45 Cubic Feet. 

USED HY 

South Yuba Canal Co., Union Water Co., El Dorado Water and Ditch Co., Park Canal and 
Mining Co., and Eureka Lake and Canal Co. 



U V 

K>3 


Miner's 
Inch. 


5 


10 


20 


30 


40 


50 


60 


70 


•S'i 


Cubic 


7.25 


1.45 . 


29 


43.5 


( 58 / 


. 72.5 


97 


101.5 




Feet. 




. 


\^^ 




c 








Head in 
Feet. 


H. P. 


^ 


H. I'. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


Q, 


H. P. 


H. P. 


10 


.11 


.22 


.44 


.66 


.88 


1.10 


1.32 


1.54 


15 


.18 


.36 


.72 


1.0S 


1.44 


1.80 


2.16 


2.52 


20 


.23 


.46 


.92 


1.38 


1.84 


2.30 


2.76 


3.22 


30 


.34 


.72 


1.44 


2.16 


2.88 


3.60 


4 32 


504 


40 


.46 


.92 


1.84 


2.76 


3.68 


4.60 


5.52 


6.44 


50 


57 


1.14 


2.28 


— v ?**& , 


■J. 56 


5.70 


6.84 


7.98 


60 


.69 


1.38 


■i i 


4.14 


5.52 


6.90 


8.28 


9.66 


70 


.80 


1.60 


3.21) 


4.80 


6.J0 


8.00 


9.60 


11.20 


80 


.92 


1.84 


3. OS 


5.54 


7.36 


9.20 


11.08 


12.88 


90 


1.05 


, 2.10 


4.211 


6.30 


8.40 


10.50 


12.60 


14.70 


100 


1.26 


2.52 


5.04 


7.56 


10.08 


12.60 


15.12 


17.64 


110 


1.3b t 


2.76 


5.52 


8.2S 


11.04 


13.t0 


16.48 


19.32 


120 


1.51 


3.02 


6.04 


9.06 


12.08 


15.10 


18.12 


21.14 


130 


1.62 


3.24 


6.48 


9.72 


12.96 


16.20 


19.44 


22.68 


140 


1.74 


3.48 


6 96 


10.44 


13.92 


17.40 


20.88 


24.36 


150 


1.85 


3 70 


7.40 


11.10 


14.80 


18.50 


22.20 


25.90 


160 


1.98 


3.96 


7.92 


11.88 


15.84 


19.80 


23.76 


28.72 


170 


2.08 


4.16 


8.32 


12.48 


16.64 


20.80 


24.96 


29.12 


180 


2.0!) 


J. IS 
4.38^ 


8.36 


12.54 


16.72 


20.90 


25.08 


29.26 


190 


2.19 


AJ76 


13.14 


17.52 


21.90 


26.28 


30.66 


200 


2.31 


4.62 


9 24 


13.86 


18.48 


23.10 


27.72 


32.34 


210 


2.40 


4.c0 


9.60 '.. 


14.46 


19.20 


24.00 


28.92 


33.60 


220 


2.52 


5.04 


10.08 


15.12 


20.16 


25.20 


30.24 


35.28 


230 


263 


5-26 


10.52 


15.7S 


21.04 


26 30 


31.56 


36.82 


240 


2.75 


5.50 


11.00 


16.50 


22.00 


27.50 


33.60 


38.50 


250 


2.86 


5.72 


11.44 


17.16 


22.88 


28.60 


34.32 


40.04 


260 


2.97 


5.94 


11.88 


17.82 


23.76 


29.70 


35.64 


41.58 


270 


3.09 


6.18 


12.36 


18.54 


24.72 


30.90 


37.08 


43.26 


280 


3.20 


6.40 


12.80 


19.20 


25.60 


32.00 


38.40 


44.80 


290 


3.32 


6.64 


13.28 


19.92 


26.56 


33.20 


39.84 


46.48 


300 


3.43 


6.86 


13.72 


20.58 


27.44 


34.30 


41.16 


48.02 


320 


3.66 


7.32 


14.64 


21.96 


29.28 


36.60 


43.92 


51.24 


340 


3.89 


7.78 


15.50 


23.34 


31.12 


38.90 


16.68 


54.46 


360 


4.12 


8.24 


- 16.48 


24.74 


32.96 


41.20 


49.48 


57.68 


380 


4.35 


8.70 


17.40 


26.10 


34.80 


43.50 


52.20 


60.90 


400 


4.59 


9.18 i 


5 — 18.36 


27.54 


36.72 


45.9(1 


55.08 


64.26 


420 


4.N2 


9.64 


19.28 


28.92 


38.56 


48.20 


57.84 


67.48 


440 


5.04 


10.08 


iO.16 


30.24 


40.32 


50.40 


60.48 


70.56 


41.0 


5.27 


10.54 


21.08 


31.62 


42.16 


52.7U 


63.24 


73.78 


480 


5.50 


11.00 


22.60 


33.00 


41.00 


55.00 


66.60 


77.00 


500 


5.73 


11.46 


22.92 


34.38 


45.84 


57.30 


68.76 


80.22 


520 


5.97 


11.94 


23.88 


35.82 


47.76 


59.70 


71.64 


83.58 


540 


6.20 


12.40 


24.80 


37.20 


49.60 


62.00 


74.40 


86.80 


560 


6.42 


12.84 


25.68 


38.52 


51.30 


64.20 


77.04 


89.88 


580 


6.65 


13.30 


26.60 


39.90 


53.20 


66.50 


79.80 


93.10 


600 


6.S7 


13.74 


27.48 


41.22 


54.96 


68.70 


82.44 


96.18 



83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 



•-".> 



TABLE OF HORSE POWERS 



KNIGHTS WATER WHEELS. 



Calculated f>>r i inch i..; \ 



South Yuba Canal Co., Union Water Co., El Dorado Water and Ditch Co., Park Canal and 
Mining Co., and Eureka Lake and Canal Co. 



2 ■- 


.Miner's 
Inch. 


80 


90 


100 

1 


120 

-r 


110 


160 


ISO 


200 


■S = 


Cubic 
I-eel. 


116 


130.5 


1, 


174 


* £03 


232 
\ 


201 


290 


Head in 










.^■S. 






Keel. 


H. P. 




H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 
3.0S 


Q, 


H. P. 


H. P. 


in 


1.76 


1.98 


2.20 


2.6 1 


3.52 


3.90 


4.40 


15 


3.88 


3.24 


3.00 


4.32 


5.04 


5.76 


6.18 


7.20 


20 


3.68 


4.1 + 


4.60 


5.92 


6.44 


7.36 


8.28 


9.20 


30 


5.76 


6.48 


7.20 


S.04 


10.08 


11.52 


12.96 


14.40 


40 


7.36 


8.28 


9.20 


11.04 


12.88 


14.72 


16.56 


18.40 


50 


9.12 


10.26 


11.40 


13.68 


15.96 


18.24 


20.52 


22.80 


fiO 


11.04 


12.42 


13.80 
16.00 


16 56 

10.20 


19.32 


22.08 


24.84 


27.60 


70 


12.80 


14.40 


22.40 


25.60 


28.80 


32.00 


80 


14.72 


16.56 


18.40 


22.10 


25.76 


29.44 


32.12 


36.80 


90 


10.80 


18.90 


21.00 


25.20 


29.40 


33.00 


37.80 


42.00 


100 


20.16 


22. OS 


25.20 


30.24 


35.28 


40.32 

44.16 


41.36 


50.40 


110 


22.08 


24.84 


27.00 


32.00 


38.64 


49.68 


55.20 


12.1 


24.16 


27.18 


30.20 


36.24 


42.28 


4s. 32 
51.84 


54.36 


60.40 


130 


25.92 


29.16 


32.40 


38.88 


45.36 


58.32 


64.80 


140 


27.84 


81.32 


34 80 


41.76 


48.72 


55. OS 
50.20 


62.64 


69.60 


15(1 


29.60 


33.30 


37.00 


44.40 


51.80 


66.60 


74.00 


160 


31.68 


35.04 


39.60 


47.52 


57.44 


63.36 


71.28 


79.20 


170 


33.28 


37.44 


41.60 


49.92 


58.24 


66.56 


74.88 


83.20 


180 


33.44 


37.62 


41. SO 


50.16 


5S.52 


66.88 


75.24 


83.60 


190 


35.04 


3:i.42 


43.80 


52.56 


61.32 


70.08 


78.84 


87.60 


200 


36.96 


41.58 


[6.20 


55.44 


04. OS 


73.92 


83.16 


92.40 


210 


38.40 


43.20 


48.00 


57.84 


67.20 


76.80 


86.40 


96.00 


220 


40.32 


45.36 


50.40 


60.48 


70.66 


80.64 < 


90.72 


180.00 


230 


42.08 


47.34 


52.60 


63.12 


73.04 


84.16 


94.68 


105.20 


240 


44.00 


49.50 


55.(10 


66.00 


77.00 


88.C0 


99.00 


110.00 


250 


45.76 


51.48 


57.20 


68.64 


80.08 


91.52 


102.96 


114.40 


260 


47.62 


53.40 


59, 40 


71.28 


83.16 


95.04 


106.92 


118.80 


270 


40.44 


55.62 


61.80 


74.16 


86.52 


98.88 


111.24 


123.60 


280 


51.20 


57.60 


64.00 


76.80 


89.60 


102.40 


115.20 


128.00 


2S0 


53.12 


59.76 


66.40 


79.68 


92.96 


106.24 


119.52 


132.80 


3110 


54.88 


61.74 


68.60 


82.32 


96.04 


109.76 


1-3.48 


137.20 


320 


58.56 


65.88 


73.20 


87. S4 


102.48 


117.12 


131.76 


146.60 


340 


62.24 


70.02 


77.80 


93.36 


108.92 


124.48 


140.04 


155.60 


360 


65.92 


74.16 


82.40 


98.96 


115.36 


131.84 


148.32 


164.80 


380 


69.60 


78.30 


87.00 


104 40 


121.80 


139.20 


156.60 


174.00 


400 


73.44 


82.62 


91.80 


110.16 


128.52 


146.88 


165.24 


183.60 


420 


77.12 


86.76 


96.40 


115.68 


134.96 


154 24 


173.52 


192.80 


440 


80.64 


00.72 


100. so 


120.00 


141.12 


161.28 


181.44 


201.60 


460 


84.32 


94.86 


108.40 


126.48 


147.56 


168.64 


189.72 


210.80 


480 


88.00 


99.00 


110.00 


132.00 


154.00 


176.00 


198.00 


220.00 


500 


91.68 


103.14 


11460 


137.52 


160.44 


183.36 


200.2S 


229.20 


520 


05.52 


107.46 


119.40 


143.28 


107.10 


191.04 


214.92 


238.80 


540 


99.20 


111.60 


124.00 


148.80 


173.60 


198.40 


22320 


248.00 


660 


102.72 


115.56 


128.40 


154.08 


179.76 


205.44 


231.12 


256. SO 


580 


100.40 


119.70 


133.00 


159.60 


186,20 


212.80 


239.40 


266.00 


600 


103.02 


123.66 


137.40 


164.88 


192.36 


219.84 


247.32 


274.60 



RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



TABLE OF HORSE POWERS 



KNIGHTS WATER WHEELS. 



Calculated for i inch = 1.6 cubic feet. 



Norih Bloomfieldj Milton and La Grange Ditches. 



41 V 


Miner's 


5 


10 


20 


30 


40 


50 


60 


70 


b»l 


Inch. 


















■Se 
OS, 


Cubic 
Feet. 


8 


16 


32 


48 


i«^| 80 


96 


112 


Head in 
Keet. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


10 


.12 


.24 


.48 


.72 


.96 


1.20 


1.44 


1.48 


IS 


.19 


.38 


.76 


1.14 


1.52 


1.90 


2.28 


2.66 


20 


.25 


.50 


1.00 


1.50 


2.00 


2.50 


3 00 


3.50 


30 


.37 


.74 


1.48 


2.22 


2.96 


3.70 


4.44 


5.1S 


40 


.50 


1.00 


2.00 


3.00 


4.00 


5.00 


6.00 


7.00 


50 


.63 


1.26 


2.52 


3.78 


5.04 


6.30 


7.56 


8.82 


60 


.76 


1.52 


3.04 


4.56 


6 08 


7.60 


9.12 


10.64 


70 


.88 


1.76 


3 52 


5.28 


7.04 


8.80 


10.56 


12.32 


80 


1.01 


2.02 


4.04 


6.06 


J 8.08 


10.10 


12.12 


14.14 


90 


1:S 


s 2.26 


, ro 


,. f^. 


' 9.04 


11.30 


13.56 


15.82 


100 


) 2 52 


5.04 


7] 56 


10.08 


12.60 


15 12 


17.64 


110 


1.38 


.- 2.76 


5.52 


8.28 


11.04 


13.80 


16.56 


19.32 


120 


1.51 
1.63 


3.02 


6 04 


9.06 


12.08 


15. 10 


18.12 


21.14 


130 


--• 3.26 


6.52 


9.78 


13.04 


16.30 - 


19.56 


22.82 


140 


1.25 


2.51) 

2.1S 


5.00 


7.50 


10.00 


12.50 


15.00 


17.50 


150 


1.39 


5.56 


8.34 


1 1 .5=2 


(3.90 


16.68 


19.46 


160 


1.50 


3.00 


6.00 


9.00 


12.00 


15.00 


18.00 


21.00 


170 


2.13 


4.26 


8.52 


12.78 


17.04 


21.30 


25.56 


29.82 


180 


2.27 


4 54 


IT.0S 


13.62 


18.16 


22.70 


27.24 


31.78 


190 


2.39 


4.7K 


9.56 


14 34 


19 12 


23.90 


28.68 


33.46 


200 


2.52 


5.04 


10.08 


15.12 


20.16 


25.20 


30.24 


35.28 


210 


2.64 


5.28 


10.56 


15.84 


21 12 


26.40 


31.68 


36.96 


220 


2.77 


5.54 


11.08 ■' 


16.62 


22.16 


27.70 


33.24 


38.78 


230 


2.89 


5.78 


11.56 


17.34 


23.12 


28.90 


34.68 


40.46 


240 


3.02 


6.04 


12.i« 


18.12 


24.16 


30.20 


36.24 


42.28 


250 


3.15 


6.30 


12.60 


18.90 


25.20 


31.50 


37.80 


44.10 


260 


3.28 


6.56 


13.12 


19.68 


26 24 


32.80 


39.36 


45.92 


270 


3.40 


6.80 


13.60 


20.40 


27.20 


34.00 


40.80 


47.60 


280 


3.53 


7.06 


14.12 


21.18 


28.24 


35 30 


42.36 


49.42 


290 


3.65 


7.30 


14.60 


21.90 


20.20 


36.50 


43.80 


51.10 


300 


3.79 


7.58 


15.16 


22.74 


30.32 


37.90 


45.48 


53.06 


320 


4.02 


8.04 


16.08 


24.12 


32.16 


40.20 


48.24 


56.28 


340 


4.28 


8.56 


17.12 


25.68 


34.24 


42. SO 


51.36 


59.92 


360 


4.48 


8.96 


17.92 


26.88 


35.84 


44.80 


53.76 


62.72 


380 


4.88 


0.76 


19.52 


29.28 


39.04 


48.80 


5N.56 


68.32 


400 


5.01 


10.02 


20.04 


30.06 


40.0S 


50.10 


60.12 


70.14 


420 


5.29 


10.58 


21.16 


31.74 


42.32 


52.90 


63.48 


74.06 


440 


5.54 


11.08 


22.16 


33.24 


44 32 


55.40 


66.48 


77.56 


460 


5.79 


11.58 


23.16 


34 74 


46.32 


57.90 


'69.48 


80.96 


480 


6.05 


12.10 


24.20 


36.30 


48.40 


60.50 


72.60 


84.70 


500 


6.30 


12.60 


25.20 


37.80 


50.40 


63.00 


75.60 


88.20 


520 


6.55 


13.10 


26.20 


39.30 


52.40 


65.50 


78.60 


91.70 


540 


6.81 


13.62 


27.24 


40 86 


54.48 


68.10 


81.72 


95.34 


560 


7.06 


14.12 


28.24 


42.36 


56.4S 


70.60 


84.72 


98.84 


580 


7.31 


14.62 


29.24 


43.86 


58.48 


73.10 


87.72 


102.34 


6C 





7.56 


15.12 


30.24 


45.36 


60.48 


75.60 


90.72 


105.84 



83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, 



> 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 



:il 



lAi'.i.l' OF HORSE POWERS 



KNIGHTS WATER WHEELS. 



Calculated fur i inch 1.6 Cubic Feet. 



North Bloomfield, Milion and La (Ir.mgc Ditches. 



^ ., Mine's 
X- Inch. 

l'§ 


M 


90 
144 


Kill 


120 


110 


160 


180 


200 


- = 

- i Cubic 


128 


.ftl 


-\'T 


224 


256 


288 


320 


Hcail in 

lect. 


H. P. 


H. iw\ \H. P. 


H. P. 


-— __ 
H. P. 


1 H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


10 


1.92 


2.16 


2.4(1 


2.88 


2.96 


3.S4 


4.32 


4.80 


15 


3.04 


3.42 


3.80 


1 56 


5.32 


6.0s 


6.84 


7.60 


20 


4.00 


4.50 


5.00 


6.00 


7.00 


8.00 


9.00 


10.00 


30 


5.02 


6.66 


7.40 


8.88 


10.36 


11 84 


13.32 


14.80 


40 


8.00 


9.00 


10.00 


12.00 


14.00 


16.00 


18.00 


20.00 


50 - 


- -10.08 


11.31 


12.60 


—15.12 


17.64 


.20.16 - 


22.68 


25.20 


B0 


12.16 


13.68 


15.20 


18.24 


21.28 


24.32 


27.36 


30.40 


70 


14.08 


15 SI 


17.611 


21.12 


24 64 
... ,28.28 


28.16 


31.68 


35.20 


80 


10.16 


18.18 


20.20 


24.24 


32.32 


36.36 


40.40 


90 


18.08 


20 34 


22.611 


27. 12 


^ -fos 


36.16 


40.68 


45.20 


100 


20.16 


22.68 


25.20 


30 24 


40.32 


. 45.36 


50.50 


110 


22.08 . 


j 24.84 
27. IS 


27.60 


33.12 


38.64 


44.16 

48.32^. 

52.10 


49.68 


55.20 


120 


24.16 


30.20 


36.24 


42.28 


54.36 


60.40 


130 


26.08 


*"" 29.34 

22.511 


32.60 


39.12 


45.64 


58.68 


65.20 


140 


20.00 


25.00 


30.00 


35 00 


40 00 
44.8S 


h - 45.00 


52.00 


150 


22.44 


25.112 
27.(10 
38.34 


27.80 


33.36 


38.92 


50.04 


55.60 


160 


24 00 


30.00 


36.00 


42.00 


48.00 


54.00 


60.00 


170 


34.08 


42.60 


51.12 


59.64 


68.16 


76.68 


85.20 


180 


30.32 


40.86 


45.40 


54.48 


63.56 


72.64 


81.72 


90.80 


190 


38.24 


43.02 
45.36 
47.52 ■ 


... 47.80 


57.36 


66.92 I 


76 48 


86.04 


95.60 


200 


40.32 


50.40 


60.48 


70 56 


■^<«0 04 


90.72 


100.80 


210 


42.24 


52 SO 
55 40 


63.36 


73.92 

sii'.92 


84.48 


95.04 


105.60 


220 


44.32 


49.86 


66.4S 


SS.64 


99 72 


110.80 


230 


46.27 


52.02 


, 57. so 


69. 36 


92.48 


104 04 


115.60 


240 


48.32 


54.36 


60.40 


72 48 


84.56 


14 


109.72 


120.80 


250 


50.40 


56.70 


63.00 


75.60 


88.20 


100.80 


113.40 


126 00 


260 


52.48 


59.04 


65 60 


78.72 


91.84 


104.96 


118.08 


131.20 


270 


54.40 


61.20 


68 00 


SI. 60 


95.20 


108.80 


122 40 


136.00 


280 


56.48 


63.54 


70,60 


84.72 


98.84 


112.96 


127.08 


14120 


290 


58 40 


65.70 


73.00 


87 60 


102/20 


116.80 


131.40 


146.00 


3U0 


60.64 


6S.22 


75.80 


90.96 


106.12 


121.28 


136.44 


151.60 


320 


64.32 


72.36 


80.40 


96.48 


112.56 


128.64 


144.72 


160.80 


340 


68.48 


77.04 


85.60 


102.72 


119.84 


136.96 


154.08 


17120 


360 


71.68 


80 64 


89.60 


107.52 


125.44 


143.36 


161.28 


179.20 


380 


78.08 


87.84 


97.60 


117.12 


136 64 


156.28 


175.68 


195.20 


400 


80 16 


90. IS 


100.20 


120.24 


140.28 


160.32 


180.36 


200.40 


42(1 


84.64 


95.22 


105.80 


126.06 


148.12 


169.28 


190.44 


211.60 


440 


88.64 


99.72 


110.80 


132.96 


155.12 


177.28 


199.44 


221.60 


460 


92.61 


104.22 


1X6.8D 


138.06 


161.92 


185.28 


208 44 


231.60 


480 


llll. SO 


108.90 


121.00 


145 20 


169.40 


193.60 


217.80 


242.00 


500 


100.80 


113.40 


126 00 


151.20 


176.40 


201.60 


226.80 


252.00 


520 


104.S0 


117.90 


131.00 


157.20 


183 40 


209.60 


235.80 


262.00 


540 


108.96 


122.58 


136.20 


163.44 


190. lis 


217.92 


245.16 


272.40 


560 


112.96 


127.08 


141.20 


160.44 


197 68 


225.92 


254.16 


282.40 


580 


116.96 


131.58 


146.20 


175 74 


21 14. os 


233.92 


263.16 


292.40 


600 


120.96 


136.08 


151.20 


181.84 


211 68 


241.92 


272. 16 


302.40 



RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



32 



220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



MEASUREMENT OF WATER 



DIFFERENT DITCH COMPANIES. 



Canal Co. 



^ 



X G^ T * 



Amador Canal Co 
Eureka Lake and Canal 

Park Canal and Mining Co 

El Dorado Water and Deep Gravel Mining Co. 



Opening. 
Inches. 



Mokelumne and Campo Seco Canal and Mining C 



Union Water Co., Murphvs 
South Yuba Canal Co. . . 

North Bloomfield v. 

Milton 



886 



■> 



7 



d: 



La Grange 

Smartsville Ditch Co . 



ffc&E&f 



Pressure 

Board. 



4 

o 



Mean 
Pressure. 



Cubic 
Feel. 



1.40 

'■45 



45 
45 
40 

45 

45 
60 
60 

fio 

73 



The North Bloomfield, Milton and La Grange companies measure through a 3-inch 
plank, the others use 1 and i^-inch planks. 

Parties using water from the Amador Canal Company, and the Mokelumne and Campo 
Seco Canal and Mining Company, will deduct 31 per cent, from the Horse Power Tables on 
pages 28 and 29; and those using the water from the Smartsville Ditch Company will add 23 per 
cent, to the same table. 



83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 



38 



TABLE 

Showing Friction of Water in Pipes. 



Loss of head in feet for each 100 feet in different sizi^ iron pipes, discharging given quantities 
of water per miniue.. ij cubic feet = i inch. 

S. VV. Knight. 



ol water per minute, i .', .nlii 



e: 



Discharging per 


MlM IE, 


> 




Sl/f> OK PIPES -INSljSlThlAMETER 






Miner';, 


Cubic 


Gallons. t in. 


2 in. 






5 io. 


6 in. 




8 in. 






Inches. 


heel. 






















.44 


.66 


5 2.00 


.05 


















.88 


1.32 


10 8 00 


.24 


















1.32 


1.98 


15 1S.00 


.56 


















1.76 


2.64 


20 i 32.00 


1 .00 





)/..: 














2.20 


3.30 


25 1 50.00 


1.511 


.26 


Skrr> 














2.64 


3.96 


30 72.00 


2.24 





)\. , 














3.08 


4.62 
5.2S 


M 

40 


3.05 
4.00 


.40 
.52 








- 








3.52 








W 








3.96 


5.94 


44 


505 


.66 














4.40 
6.60 


6.60 

9.90 


L,-4« 

74 


5.61 
14.05 


.81 
1.84 


.19 


.14 




kr- 








8.80 


13.20 


36\ i 


25.00 


3.28 


.77 




.or 


. .... 








11.00 


16.50 




5.14 




.40 


L 


) 








13.20 


19.80 


148 


56.24 


7.4-1 


1.74 




.22 










15 40 


23.10 


174 


V\, 


7G.56 


10.08 


2.40 


• 7 S 












17.60 


26.40 


196 


A.'.y 


s_ 


13.16 


3.12 


1.02 


Ml 


.18 








22.00 


33.00 
39.60 


247 
296 


Vyt 


hi 


■11). 50 
29.02 


4-88 


S 


.42 


.15 
.21 






26.40 


.11 




30.80 


46.20 


345 






40.32 


0.50 


3.13 


1.25 


.57 


.29 


.15 


.09 


35.20 


52 80 


395 




52.02 


12.40 


4.09 


1.64 


.76 


.38 


.20 


.12 


39.60 


59.40 
66.00 


444 
494 






00.33 


15.81 
19 52 


5.18 
0.40 


2.08 
2.56 


.96 
1.18 


.48 
.60 


.25 
.31 


.15 


44.00 






.18 


66.00 


99.00 


741 








14.40 


5.78 


2.67 


1.36 


.71 


.42 


88 00 


132.00 
1G5.00 


987 
1234 










25.00 


10.28 
10.07 


4.75 
7.43 


2.44 
3.80 


1.26 
1.98 


.75 


110.00 








1.17 


132.00 


198.00 


1481 1 












10.70 


5.48 


2.85 


1.68 


154.00 


231.00 


1728 














7.47 


3.88 


2.29 


176.00 


264.00 


1975 
















5.07 


3.00 


198.00 


297.00 


2222 


















3.79 



















RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



34 



220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



TABLE 



Showing Friction of Water in Pipes. 



Loss of head in feat for each ioo feet in different sizes iron pipes, discharging given quantities of 
water per minute. i| cubic feet = i inch. 



A 



G^ 



= 



S. VV. Knight. 



Discharging Per M 


INUTE. 


V- 




SIZEs OF PIPES 


-INSIDE DIAMETER. 






Miner's 
Inches. 


Cubic 
Feet. 


Gallons. 


ii in. 


12 in- 


13 in. 


14 in. 


15 in. 


16 in. 


,Si, 


22 in. 


26 in. 


30 in. 


374 in. 


66.00 

88 00 


99 00 

132 00 
165 00 
19s. 00 
231.00 
264.00 
297 00 
330.00 
396.00 
462.00 
528 00 
594.00 
660.00 
726.00 
79^.00 
858.00 
924.00 
1056 00 
1188.00 
1320.00 
1452.00 
1581.00 
1980.00 
2640.00 
3960.00 
5280.00 
6600.00 


740 

987 

12(4 

1479 

1728 

1975 

2222 

246S 

2962 

3156 

3519 

4442 

4937 

5345 

592 1 

6418 

6901 

7899 

8784 

9S74 

10S61 

11848 

14810 

19747 

29585 

39491 

49368 


.25 
.46 
.72 
104 
1.42 
1.86 
2.35 
2.91 
4.18 
5.70 

V 

> 


.16 

.30 

.46 

.67 

.92 

1.20 

1.52 

1.88 

2.61 

3.69 

4.82 


.19 

.45 

.61 
.80 
1.02 
1.26 
1.81 
2.46 
3.22 
4.08 


















lin.00 
132.00 


.30 

.42 

.5.5 

.70 

.82 

1.25 

1.70 

2.22 

2.82 

3.48 


.21 

.30 

.40 

.51 

.63 

.88 

1.20 

1.57 

1.99 

2.46 

2.98 

3.55 














151.00 


). . . 

' .27 












176.00 
19-i.OO 








.'::::. 




220.00 


.44 
.63 
.87 
1.14 
1.44 
1.78 
2.16 
2.57 
301 
3.50 


.24 

'"X& 
.63 
.80 
1.09 
1.20 
1.42 
1.67 
1.94 
2.53 
3.21 






264.00 


.12 
".23 ' 






308.00 
352.00 
396.00 


"'.69' 






440.00 
484.00 


.36 


.15 






528.00 
571.00 


u 


l 


-( 


is 


.51 

.60 

.72 

.93 

1.17 

1.45 

1.76 

2.09 


.21 






616.00 
704.00 
792 00 


.30 

".51 
.63 
.75 
.90 
1.41 
2.52 


"l8 

.31 

.44 

.69 

1.23 

2.77 

4.93 




880.00 






.09 


968.00 


















1056.00 
















.14 


1320.(10 
1760.00 














.39 


2640 00 


















.90 


3520.00 


















1.68 


4400.00 


















2.52 



























83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 



36 



TABU 

Showing Thickness, Weight, Safe Internal Pressure, etc., of 
Different Sizes of Sheet Iron Hydraulic Pipes. 

S. W. Knight. 





3 
< 


a 

M 

- 


'C 

V 

— 
"u = 

— 7. 

£.— 

a 
C 

414 
549 
239 

335 
430 
294 
390 
51 ii i 
656 
333 

(3 

H 

4:12 
543 

260 

333 

4:',7 

482 

223 

285 

375 

413 

500 

195. 

250 

328, 

362 


- S 

5 


H 

9 

-2.27 
3.29 

4.35 
2.77 

4. 11.", 

5.:;:: 

4.60 

6.08 

7. i;i 

9.90 

7.0i; 

8.87 

1 1 .52 

8.04 

10.1(1 

13.16 

14.00 

. 9.03 

11.34 

14.07 

10.43 

10.50 

13.19 

17.-14 

19.05 

21.08 

11.98 

15.05 

19.55 

21.72 


B 

a 


I 

V 


5 

2 


J 
3 

9 

— 
tn 

_g 

jj 

a 

< 


-I 

m 


11 
fctn 


S. 

K 

■si 

a 


1 

3 

V 

c 

.&> 

'0 

SP 

w 

5 


i 

J2 
C 

a 

□ 




.3 

'js 
H 


i 

0. 
Jj 

£ 


5 
5 


19 
19 
19 
2S 
28 
28 
38 
38 
38 
38 

50 

50 

63 

63 

63 

03 

95 

95 

95 

95 

132 

132 

132 

132 

132 

170 

170 

170 

176 


20 
18 
16 

20 
18 

10 
18 
10 
14 
12 
16 
14 
12 
ii; 

14 
12 
11 
16 

14 
12 
11 
16 
14 
12 
11 
10 
10 
14 
12 
11 


1-1 

18ff 
239 

104 
145 

193 
128 
170 
218 
286 
145 
ISO 
2-14 
127 
103 
214 

nl 

145 
190 
235 

97 
124 
163 
179 
220 

85 
1<9 
143 
157 


.1 35 

,H4!I 

.035 
.049 




15 

IS 
IS 

IS 
IS 
18 
22 

22 
22 

22 

20 
26 
20 
26 
20 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 

37' ■ 

my, 

31% 


176 
254 

254 
254 
254 
2 4 
880 
380 
s i 380 
380 
380 
380 
530 
530 
530 
530 
530 
700 
700 
706 
700 
7 

:,•!!{ 
H14 

1104 
1104 


10 

16 
14 
12 

11 
10 
16 
14 

12 
11 
10 

8 
14 
12 
11 
10 

8 
12 
11 

i 10 

? 
11 

10 

8 

7 
6 


-nil 
262 
289 
354 
128 
165 
216 
238 
294 
325 
142 
180 
206 
252 
281 
104 
181 
221 
240 
271 
144 
177 
197 
216 
244 


193 

OS 

87 

114 

125 

151 

50 

72 

95 

104 

128 

142 

62/ 

81 

89 

111) 

122 

VI 

78 

90 

107 

118 

62 

77 

85 

94 

106 


24.04 
14.93 

IS. 75 
24.37 
27.06 
29.91 
17.88 
22.25 
29.18 
32.41 
35.88 
44.48 
29.83 
34.00 
37.75 
41.80 
51.75 
38.82 
43.07 
47.18 
58.97 
64.97 
53.77 
r :i.50 
73.55 
81.01 
89.80 


.134 
.065 
.083 
.109 

.12 
.134 
.0(i5 
.083 
.109 

.12 
.134 
.165 
.083 
.109 

.12 
.134 
.165 
.109 

.12 
.134 
.165 

.18 

.12 
.134 
.165 

.18 
.203 




5 











(> 




6 


.065 






7 


.049 




7 
7 


.065 

.083; 

.1119 
.065 

.qsr 

.inn 

.083 

.111:1 
.12 
.065 
.083 
.109 

/J 2 

.005 

.083 
.1(19 

.12 
.134 
.005 
.083 
.109 

.12 


m 








sy. 




■J i /» 




»% 




9V, 






9V, 




11 






11 






11 






11 
13 






13 

13 


:.Of 




13 
13 




15 




15 




15 




















15 









































The above table is a memorandum of pipe that has been actually in use for ten years, so 
that it is perfectly' reliable. 

Large sizes of pipe, from 18-inch upwards, made of the above thicknesses, are to be 
buried and tamped underneath to prevent flattening when water is turned on. 

Where pipe is used for hoisting works or other work subject to shutiing off suddenly, the 
thickness of iron to be used should be two sizes thicker for the same head, and for hoisting 
works a safely valve should always be used — such as described on page 24. 

The weights in the above table are calculated dipped in coal tar; asphaltum would be 
much heavier. 



RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 87 



KNIGHT HYDRAULIC PUMPING ENGINE. 



The cut on the opposite page represents the Knight Hydraulic Pumping Engine. This 
Is especially designed for pumping water out of mines to any depth where there is water pressure 
above the drain tunnel. This engine can be bolted to the shaft timbers at the drain tunnel, and 
a pump rod run down to a special plunger pump, made by Knight & Co., for use in connection 
with this engine. 

By using this engine at the drain tunnel, the greatest amount of the useful effect of the 
water will be obtained. This method of pumping water out of a mine saves the enormous 
expense of gears, bob and foundation, and a long delay in setting up the ordinary pump, besides 
a great loss of power in the friction of heavy gearing and shafting. Both the engine and pump 
can be set on the same bed plate if desired, and the whole apparatus secured in the shaft belcw 
the surface or drain tunnel, and water to operate the engine carried down to it in suitable pipes. 
After operating the engine the water is exhausted into the discharge pipe of the pump. The 
only gain by doing this is in doing away with the pump rod. Nothing is gained in power. 
We make pumps that will pump iooo feet high, or more if desired. 

Often places are found in mining localities where there is a great amount of water from 
50 to 100 feet below the mine. This can be utilized by Knight's Hydraulic Engine for pumping 
purposes, by using a large cylinder for the low pressures. This is connected with a small pump, 
and this in turn is connected by pipes to the pump in the mine, and operates it with perfect ease. 
Pressures corresponding to 700 to 1000 feet can readily be obtained, making the use of small 
pipes an advantage, thus saving great cost in the plant. 

Our Hydraulic Engine will pump 30 per cent, more water out of a mine than any water 
wheel and gearing ever made. Parties having pumping to do in mines would do well to write 
for all particulars. In writing state the head of water from the ditch to the drain tunnel or 
whatever point the water is delivered from the mine; also the amount of water expected to be 
pumped; also depth of shaft. 

All questions will be promptly answered, giving cost of construction, etc. 

Patented March 31, 1885. 

Reference is made to the letter from the Plumas Eureka Mining Company, on page 45 of 
this catalogue. 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 



38 220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 

The Facts in Regard to the So-called 

GRASS VALLEY WATER WHEEL TEST. 



The Idaho Mine, desiring to save as much water as possible, deemed it advisable to have 
a test of the relative merits of the different water wheels, and it therefore invited four or five 
different makers to compete. Among others accepting were Pelton and Knight. 

There had been quite a delay in getting the water laid into the mine, and when the lime 
came for the test, Mr. Coleman was very anxious to have it done as quickly as possible, so as to 
make no further delay. 

Mr. Pelton put his wheel on the testing frame first, and ran it for half a day. The 
different conditions were noted, and rough estimates made of percentages, etc. 

Mr. Knight put on his wheel next, and upon turning the water on, the nozzle burst. He, 
not having an extra ote, was obliged to telegraph to Sutter Creek for another. This caused a 
delay of four or five days. Upon the arrival of the new one, a time was set for trial. Upon 
starting up again, Mr. Pelton and assistant did the timing and registering, and Mr. Knight was to 
look after the water. Mr. Knight noticed that the water was continually rising in the measuring 
box, and remarked that something was wrong. A few data had at this time been recorded. An 
investigation then followed, and a crack in the nozzle was discovered that rendered it impossible 
to proceed. It was evident that a further delay of five days would be required to duplicate the 
nozzle, and Mr. Knight knowing the anxiety of the Idaho Company to have no further delay, 
turned to Mr. Pelton and said: " I do not wish to keep the mine wailing any longer. I am 
satisfied from the performance of your wheel that mine could do no belter, and I am willing to 
yield to you, providing you admit that my wheel has had notesi, and nd figures shall be published 
in regard to the whole matter." 

Mr. Pelton assented to this, and Mr. Knight withdrew. This was on April 30, 1883. 
In the face of this, one month later, June 9,1 1883, the whole affair was published, giving the 
Pelton wheel an astonishing record, and for the Knight, the data taken by Mr. Pelton and assis 
tant under the conditions mentioned, with the water streaming out through the cracked nozzle. 
Mr. Knight had no part in making or revising the calculations, and was ignorant of the fact that 
they were being compiled for publication, inasmuch as it was contrary to agreement. 

In support of the above statement we publish the following letter from Edward Coleman, 
Manager of the Idaho Mining Company, dated May 15, 1886: 

Edward A. Rix, Grass Vallf.v, May 15, 1S86. 

San Francisco. 
Dear Sir: — Your favor of May 131I1 came 10 hand yesterday, in reply will say, when we made the tests 
of water wheels in 1883, we used 116 inches of water, or 163. 211 cubic feet per minute on the Pelton wheel, 
as well as on the other wheels with the exception of Knight's, and his nozzle broke so we coukt not measure the 
water which his nozzle called for. 

Yours truly, 

EDWARD COLEMAN. 



83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 39 



In justice I even .u this late day, we cannot forbear lo criticise the wonderful 

results obtained by the Pelton wheel, and we will say that although the tail race of the wheel 
frame w.i, provide! with a miner's inch measuring box, especially prepared, Mr. Pelton did not 
use it, anJ did all the in sasuring for his own test with his own hinds, while the gentleman appointed 
He made the measurements with a hook gauge, from which the results 
were registered in cubic feet. He used the same nozzle all the time, and by his gauge the 
greatest amount of water used was i '12.9 cubic feet. 

Mr. Knight and several others at the same time carefully measured the water in the 
miner's inch measuring box, and Found it running 116 miner's inches. The preceding letter of 
Mr. Coleman verifies this measurement. 

Mr. Pelton figured his percentage by his own record of cubic feet, and found 90.2 per 
cent. — an astonishing result, and one well calculated to make one doubt the accuracy of the 
measurements. _^ ll p 

It is now a fact beyond all question that the Nevada County miner's inch is 1.45 cubic 
feet per minute, and conse^&e*tly 162.9 cubic feet would bku.12^35 inches; but by actual 
measurement he used 1 K^-mches; therefore his gauge did not reao_rd cubic feet enough. By 
proportion we have 112.35X90.2-5-116=87.3, which is his true percentage as far as water 
measurement is concerned. 

The apparatus used for testing the wheels was good enough to test the comparative merits 
of the wheels, but when it came to determining accurately the percentage, it was not by any 
means accurate, for instance, the pressure on the brake was registered by a pair of platform scales 
and the beam was jumping and vibrating so much that it was impossible to register the pressure 
within quite a percentage. The timing also was not such as would pass taiisjer on a fine calcu- 
lation. L—' - XI 

Taking all these things into consideration and also Mr. Pelton's.<fntej:est in the matter, it is 
fair to assume that his wheel tiW not actually reach 87.3 per cent, but probably realized from 83 
to 85 per cent., which is a splendid result, and one more consistent with the hvdraulic data here- 
tofore on record. A Pelton wn&el Jrested at -the University W- California very carefully and scien- 
tifically showed a maximum percentage of 8«..6,,whiQh bears out our preceding remarks. 

At the Idaho test where the quantity was 116 inches, the head over 386.6 feet, and power 
about 100 horse power — conditions all favorable to the Pelton — the percentage obtained about 85 
per cent., but at lone where the Pelton wheel was put in under a head of 68 feet and quantity of 
water 400 inches, it did not realize 50 per cent, and was replaced by one of Knight's row head 
wheels. 

Take the 1 20 stamp mill of the Alaska M. & M. Co. Here the same conditions exist as 
at the Idaho test, except that the power required is greater and yet thus far it has been a failure 
for the very reasons enumerated above. The head is 360 feet and power required about 250 
H. P., number of revolutions required of the wheel is 236 to give the stamps 95 drops. There 
is a Knight and a Pelton on the same shaft each with complete and independent water connections. 
The Pelton has one nozzle. 



RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



40 220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



Putting on the tip marked 375 cubic feet, the wheel makes 185 revolutions. 
" " " " 400 " " " " ?20 " 

" " " " 415 " " " " 210 " 

Showing that 400 cubic feet is all the buckets will stand and any increase of water will 
only be a detriment. The Knight wheel is running the mill easily at its proper speed, while the 
Pelton never has run it At this time of writing Mr. Pelton has sent a double nozzle to take the 
place of the single one. This will of course enable his wheel to do the work, but with no high 
percentage. 

It must be evident to anyone acquainted with water power machinery that the Pelton 
wheel can never be adapted to general purposes, where heads vary all the way from 10 to 700 
feet and quantities from 10 to 1500 inches. 

The Knight wheel however is above all a wheel for general work and will operate under 
all conditions by simply increasing or diminishing the length of the slit in the nozzle while the 
buckets remain the same. If small power is required move the slide in the slit so that the 
opening shall cover one or two buckets; if more power is required pull out the slide to cover 
more buckets until, as in especially low heads and large powers, the nozzle may extend completely 
around the wheel as shown on page 1 7. 

The Pelton wheel cannot be governed without loss of percentage because any attempt to 
close off the flow of water while the size of the nozzle remains the same not only reduces the 
quantity of water but its pressure at the nozzle also. With the Knight wheel a perfect governing 
appliance is used as described on page 4. 

/ 

Before purchasing water wheels parties should consider all of the above points and buy 

that wheel which will be to his advantage for his particular conditions of power, quantity and 
head and not from the results obtained by his neighbor, under totally different conditions. 

The Pelton and Knight wheels may be seen working under precisely similar conditions at 
the Alta Pulp Mill, doing the same work and the superiority of the Knight is unquestioned 
although numerous changes have been made in the attempt to increase the efficiency of the 
Pelton. We respectfully call attention to the list of wheels at the end of this catalogue, as 
showing that they have come into general use throughout the coast. 



( 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 



42 220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



LETTER FROM J. P. LAMBING, 

SUPT. ARROYO SECO MINE. 



Messrs. Knight & Co., Sirs:- 



Ione, April 5, 1886. 



In reply to your letter asking how we are satisfied with your machinery, I have to say first in reference 
.to your 15-inch Turbine water wheels, that they have given us perfect satisfaction. We were running one No. 6 
and one No. 8 Vertical Centrifugal pumps "with a 12-foot Pelton wheel under 68 feet head, with about 400 inches 
of water. We had to raise from 100 lo 500 miner's inches 36 feet high, and the Pelton wheel required so much 
water and the pumps so much care that I was induced to-substitute two of your 15-inch Turbines, and I cannot 
describe to you how perfect they work and how little care and attention they require, so easily regulated, no hot 
journals to watch, they run for weeks with no other attention than a little oil once in 12 or 24 hours. During the 
past 34 years I have used several of what were considered the best water wheels in use, among them the Pelton 
and Leffal Turbine, but for mining purposes I unhesitatingly recommend yours above all others that I have seen 
and having five of your wheels now in use I ought to be able to speak intelligently on the subject. Cheapness of 
first cost, durability, and made in one piece, not a complicated lot of pieces bolted together, to get loose and out 
of order. These are features in your wheels which ought to recommend them at once to practical miners. You 
can refer parties to me for any information relating to the above, but those wanting similar wheels and pumps 
should come here if possible and see them in operation. 

Your centrifugal double discharge pumps also work to our entire satisfaction. The double discharge is a 
great improvement on the Eastern single discharge pumps, as it balances the driver so nicely and takes off all side 
friction and strain. I think the last pump and wheel sent me is the most perfect, cheap and economical pump 
now made. It will pump mud, sand, gravel, chips, leaves, or anything that will pass through a 3-inch square 
mesh . 

We have pumped up with the water, sand and fine gravel as fast as two men coukL^hovel it to the pump 
for hours at a time and raise' it 36 feet high. No valves and packing to wear out and. with the tappet and wheel 
bearing for the vertical shaft; It will not wear out in a life-time. We have had these pumps in constant use for 
the past two years and I cannot see that they are any the worse for the hard usage, although the ones we got 
from the East wore out in 5 months in doing the same work. 

The steam derrick used in connection with the above wheels and pumps does its work as well as a derrick 
could do. We hoist from 5 to 7 tons at a load, on the end of a boom no feet long, hoist it 50 feet high, swing it 
out and dump it and return in \}' 2 minutes. t0 ^ \^ \ 

The boom is much easier handled and controlled than those built by the Lockport Derrick Builders who 
have the reputation of building the best, and it worl»4rf e«ery^ wa^fiilly as well and in many respects better than 
those built in the Eastern States. This is the largest derrick on the Coast, I believe. I went East and examined 
derricks and ascertained prices before getting this one built, and persons thinking of building such should certainly 
examine this one in operation, before contiacting for one There is a large amount of mining ground throughout 
the Pacific Coast similar to our mine, where the stripping is too deep to admit of working by the old process but 
which can be profitably worked by using these powerful steam derricks to remove the strippings, and it is fortunate 
for mining interests that the best of derricks can be built here at the mines and at no greater cost than they can 
be had at the East. Having been engaged in mining for 34 years and taking a deep interest in the improvements 
and invention of new machinery, I am glad to see you so successful-in meeting that want of the miner for which 
your long experience in the machinery business in the mines, so well qualifies you to do. 

Sincerely yours, 

J. P. LAMBING, 

Superintendent Arroyo Seco Mine. 



83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 



i:i 



SELF DUMPING CRANE BUCKETS. 




^ CR£^ 



nK 



BUCKET CLOSED. 



This bucket is the one used at the Arroyo Seco Mine, on the end of the large boom 
described on page 42. They are self dumping and by far the most complete arrangement for 
handling earth, rocks or gravel in the manner described. Anyone desiring anything of the kind 
would do well to correspond with us on the subject, or with the Johnson Manufacturing Co., 
Duncan Building, 11 Pine St., New York. 



RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



44 220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



KNIGHT'S CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. 



TABLE 



Giving Sizes of Pulley and Discharge Pipes; also Capacity and Revolutions 
per Minute to Raise Water to Different Heights. 



pi 

s 

PL, 


Q. 


parity 
Minute. 

i of Pulley. 

of Pulley. 


REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE. 




o 

OS 
a 

s 


Wj3 
S 


a. 


1 s 

s 


i \ ~ r ~ 






Z 


In. 


Gallons. 


In. 


'- 


W 


to Ft. 15 Ft. 


20 Ft. 


i$ Ft. 


30 Ft. 


35 ft. 








V 




' 








3 


3 


400 


j^ 


6 


494 


580 650 * 




775 


830 


890 


3% 


W, 


600 


IS 


496 


582 645 


705 


762 


815 


872 


4 


4 


900 


487 


567 600 


i;."u 


700 


760 


.800 


5 


5 


1200 


12 8 


482 


547 560 


575 


650 


700 


750 


6 


6 


1800 


14 10 


440 


495 


470 


500 


600 


670 


700 


7 


7 


2060 


16 12 


367 


410 


450 


484 


520 


550 


580 


8 


8 


4600 18 14 


300 


333 


367 


390 


414 


440 


460 




In. 


Gallon. 


In. 


in 


„olt. 


,,. 


'- 6o Ft. 


70 Ft. 


80 Ft. 


90 Ft. 


too Ft. 


3 


3 


£2 


10 6 


1,3, 


— v_ 

10-24 


1110 


1190 


12fi0 
ill 


1325 


1365 


3 X A 


3V, 


10 6 


915 


1000 


1082 


1155 . 


1307 


1385 


4 


4 


900 


12 8 


895 


960 


1000 


1100 


1255 


1300 


5 


5 


1200 


14 10 


846 


921 


995 1 1058 r 


1123 
980 


1183 


1240 


6 


6 


lh00 


v 16 12 

18 14 
20 16. 


750 


810 


871 927 


1033 


1085 


7 


7 


2660 


607 


660 


710 


750 
1X19 


800 
643 


840 


880 


8 


8 


4600 


485 


525 


575 


663 


695 



^V^ R ^15^ 



Double Discharge Vertical Centrifugal Pumps 

Including H feet of Shaft, two 2S-inch diameter anti-friction Wheels, and steel face 
Tappet fitted to Pump Shaft and Boxes. 



Number of Pump 


3 


3% - 


4 


5 . 


6 


7 


8 




$165 


$175 


$200 


$220 


$230 


$250 


$300 







We will fill Orders for all Sizes of Pumps. 

Allow 50 per cent, more power than water to be pumped on large quantities, and on 
small quantities 75 per cent. 



83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, 






OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. • 



San Francisco, Cai.., April ist, 1886. 
Messrs. S. N. Knight A Co., 

Dear Sirs: — The hydraulic pumping engine that you sent us, is working to our complete 
satisfaction. It is drawing two 12-inch Plunger pumps and raising the water 150 feet vertically. 
We use about 25 inches of water under a pressure of 700 feet to operate the engine. It is work- 
ing along uninterruptedly and requires less attention than a steam or air pump, and we cannot say 
too much in its praise. . 1 —p- 

Any parties having pumping to do under similar conditions cannot do better than to 
put in one of your Hydraulic Pumping Engines. 

Yours respect/uTTy\ 



V 



n 1886 

— ► — 



WM.- JOHNS, Manager, 
JOHN HOSKING. Sup't., 
J. A. PHIPPS, Engineer, 

Plumas Eureka Mine. 

-J 

c7 

/-■JJennedy Mine, Jackson, Amador Co., Cal, April 13th, 1886. 
S. N. Knight, Esq., f V^ 

Dear Sir: — The water power macJrpiefy^vifiCreversible wheels and adjustable nozzles, 
etc., built by you for the Kennedy Mine, works well and is giving good satisfaction and I can 
willingly recommend it. 

Yours respectfully, 

F. F. THOMAS, 

Superintendent. 



RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



4U 



220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



PARTIES USING KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS. 



Oneida Mining Co., Jackson, Cal 

Con. Amador Mining Co., Sutter Creek, Cal 

Lincoln Gold " " " " " 

Mahoney Mining Co., Sutter Creek, Cal 

Keystone Con. Mining Co., Amador City, Cal 

Original Amador Mining Co., " " " 

Gover Mining Co., Amador City, Cal 

Gold Mountain Mining Co., Amador City, Cal 

Gwin Mine, Mokelumne Hill, Cal 

St. Patrick's Mill, New Castle, Cal^ . .Vj ^T". . . . .Q 

Julian Mine, " " \"fTX.rA. J Q{. . 

Sheba Silver Mining Co., Nevada.. f\A 

Green Mountain Co., Plumas, Cal. 
Lucky Queen Mining Co., Oregon 

Pittsburg and California Gold Mining Co., Smartsville, Cal *. i 

Republic Mill, Nevada Co., Cal 1 

Sierra Buttes Mine, Sierra City, Cal 8 

De Frees Mill, Tuscarora, Nevada i 

California Mining Co., Drytown, Cal 

Plumas Eureka Mine, Plumas, Cal. ... . . ,y 



G 



ms& 



Bull's Run Basin. Nevada. 






W- 



t 



£ 



*£ 



Magalia Gold Mining Co., Magalia, G 
Columbia Con. Gold and Silver Mining Co 

Mommoth Mills, Mammoth, Cal 

Savercoal Mining Co., Prattsville, Cal 

Alabama Mine, Jamestown, Cal 

Pacific Mining Co., Placerville, Cal. ... 

Gopher " " " " 

Talisman Gold Mining Co., Amador City, Cal . 
Mountain View Mining Co., Granite Hill, Cal 

Blue Tent Mining Co., Nevada City, Cal 

Spring Valley Mining Co., Cherokee, Cal 5 

Bunker Hill Mining Co., Amador City,. Cal 5- 

F. M. Brown, Leadville, Colorado 2 

Telurium Mining Co., Pine Grove, Cal i 

O. D. Barrett, Oakdale, Cal i 

R. P. & W. B. Clement, Oakdale, Cal i 

Mount Hope Mining Co., Grizzly Flat, Cal i 

Merrifield Mining Co., Nevada City, Cal 3 

South Yuba Canal Co., You Bet, Cal 2 

Farwell Mining Co , Leadville. Colorado 2 

Lamphear Mining Co., Mokelumne Hill, Cal 3 

Wells, Fargo & Co., Humboldt Bay, Cal i 

Help Bros., Ward, Nevada ' 



83 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 



Benfeldt Gravel Mine, Placerville, Cal , 

El Dorado Waiei and D G. Mining I .>., Placerville, Cal 

Idaho Gold Mining Co., Gibbsonville, Idaho 
Big Bend Tunnel Co., Oroville, Cal ... 
Glencove Mining Co., Rail Road Flat. Cal . 
Harmon Gold Mining Co., Auburn, Cal. . . . 

Zeile Mining Co 

Mammoth Mine, Jackson, Cal . . 

Byron Jennings, Nevada City, Cal 

Arroyo Seco Mine, lone, Cal 

Grover Bros., Georgetown. Cal 

Jupiter Gold Mining Co., Altaville, Cal 

Monterichard Mining Co., Jackson, Cal. . . . 

Kelly Gold Mining Co., Jackson, Cal 

Matson " " ' 

Moore " ■* 

Panuco Silver " " M 

Navajo Mining Co., Tuscaror\ Nevada ^T! /T\ . 

Soulsby Mining Co., Sonata," Cal >t< . 

Oakdale Co. Planing Mill, Sonora, Cal 

Riverside Mine, Columbia, Cal 

Spring Gulch Mine, Tuolumne Co., Cal 

Patterson Mine, Tuttletown, Cal 

Arctic Manufacturing Co., Grizzly FlatjCj 
Mount Pleasant Mining Co., Grizzly Flat,,Ca 



I»i^o\ f~A . . 



Mowery Mills, Grizzly Flat, Cal. 

Melton Mining Co., Grizzly Flat, Cal ^.. / 

Belleville Mine, Belleville, Idaho . 

P. J. Kelley, Saw Mill, Red Rock, Montana X~. . 

W. H. H. Bowers, SalKtaVe, Utah Cj .. 

Pichias Mining Co., Durango, Mexico 



GRE 



New Toleda Mill, Tuttletown,, Cal. . . . 
Smarlsville Flour Mill, Smartsville, Cal 
Granite Basin Mill, Plumas, Cal. ...'.. 

Loyal Lead Mine, Drytown, Cal 

New Almaden Quartz Mining Co., New Almaden, Cal. 

J. Long, Moore's Flat, Cal 

Centennial Mine, Drytown, Cal 

Geo. Hagerman Mine, Drytown, Cal 

Amador Marble Works, Plymouth, Cal 

Fresno Enterprise Co., Fresno, Cal 

Melone's Con. Mining Co., Carson Hill, Cal 

Volcano G. G. Mining Co., Volcano, Cal 

Down's Mining Co., Volcano, Cal 

Pioneer Pulp Mill, Alta, Cal 

W. H. Porter, Angel's Camp, Cal 

Nashville Mine, Nashville, Cal 

Pleasant Valley Mining Co., El Dorado, Cal 



£fe 



RUNNING OVER 1900 STAMPS. 



( 

« 220 KNIGHT'S WATER WHEELS, GIVING 



Springfield Mining Co., El Dorado, Cal . . . i — 

California Mining Co., Drytown, Cal -. z 

Alaska Mill and Mining Co., Douglas Island, Alaska 4 

Butte Basin Mining Co., Jackson, Cal 2 

H. A. W. Tabor, Jesus Maria, Chihuahua, Mexico. 
L. M. Mann, " " " " 

A. M. Halter, Helena, Montana 

Florence Gold Mining Co., Oroville, Cal 

Shakspeare Mine, Forbestown, Cal 

Amador Queen Mining Co., Jackson, Cal 

Iowa Mining Co., Sutter Creek, Cal 

Peter Fagan, Barley Mill, Suiter Creek, Cal 

St. Julian Mine, Jackson, Cal 

Russell Reduction Works, West Point, Cal 



M. Murray, Lancha Plana, AmadorpCalYf-l. . .1 jP. 

Campo Seco Copper Co., Campo Seco, Cal ~K. . /TV 

Detroit Copper Co., Hawth.pr.ae, Nevada ^^ ->»>.■ 

G. G. Gilbert, PlymoujJiCa^ (~7). 

G. G. Gilbert, Lamb's Bftdge, Cal 

Plymouth Con. Gold Mining Co , Plymouth, Cal 

W. H. Armstrong, Douglas Island, Alaska 

Morrv & Sperry, New York 

Oro Fino Mining Co , Shingle Springs, Cal 

W. H. Russell, Belleville, Nevada. . . 

Monitor Mill and Mining Co., Steptoe[C(eek}Nevfj 

Utica Mining Co.^- Angel's Camp, CalT » 

What Cheer MininYQl., Mokelumne Hill, Cal :—■«/ . 

Crown Point Mining Co., Grass Valley, Cal , :\ji '. . . 

Wm. Robinson, Mokelurhne Hill Cal >»..... 

Pyramid Mine, Shingle Springs, Cal \^J. ■ ■ ■ 

Columbo Mine, Sierra City, Cal 

Manhattan Silver Mining Co.ABattlt Mountain. Nevada.^.. \k^ v 
Baker Divide Mine, Forest Hirl, £&p . . . /r^ r^ eT. S&- ■ ■ 

J. A. Edman, Saw Mill, Eagle Gulcn, CaL^. .J7"Y \*. 

Kennedy Mining Co., Jackson, Cal 5 

South Spring Hill Mining Co., Amador Citv, Cal 3 - 

Golden Cliff Mine, Angel's Camp, Cal 1 - 



OUT OVER 6000 ACTUAL HORSE POWER. 






^f^^Z^«-v^. -/»-^ 



\ ^ c^c^^c S«-*-±<r y "zU^l^i fc«X4- 5^«. 



c 



6WIN MINE DEVELOPMENT CO. 



— . 



IX 1 )EX. 



6- Foot Wheel 

Method of Selling Win- I 

: ■ v 

Wheels, 
I 
Brass Wheels. 
Hydraul 

ulic Hoisting W.»iks. 
Hydrau 

Purchasers, 
Prii e List 
Speed Table, 
Table ,»f Horse Powei 
Ditch Measurements, 
Friction of Water in Pipes, 
Table "I Pipe Dimensions, 
Hydraulic Pumping I l] ill 
Facts about the Grass Valley Te t, 
The Arroyo Seco Plant, 
Self Dumping Crane Buckets, 
Centrifugal Pumps, 
List i>!" Wheels in Operation, 



<i i 1 

12-1-1 

15 Id 
17 18 



J .s 
26 



33 34 

35 
37 

3 s 4o 
42 
43 
44 

46 48